12 November is the World Pneumonia Day

November 12th is the World Pneumonia Day. According to the WHO, pneumonia is among the TOP10 most common causes of death all over the world1. In children under 5 years, diseases caused by pneumococcal infection are a primary cause of death associated with diseases that can be prevented by vaccination2. In adults, it is pneumonia that is the most common manifestation of pneumococcal infection3,4.

In Russia, pneumococcal vaccination has been on the National Immunization Schedule (NIS) since 2014; in the first two years, all children are vaccinated free of charge. Currently, within the framework of National Immunization Schedule of the Russian Federation, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevenar®13 is used that covers the biggest number of the country-specific serotypes as compared with other conjugated vaccines5,6. The vaccine is recommended for infants older than 2 months, and further infinitely.

Prevenar®13, an innovative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, is manufactured in Russia by Petrovax Pharm using a full-cycle process for a finished dosage form within the framework of cooperation with Pfizer. The pneumococcal vaccine supplies under the state program grow year after year. In 2017, under the NIS, Petrovax Pharm supplied more than 4.3M vaccine shots to Russia’s regions. Over the past 4 years, vaccine supplies totaled 15M shots. Most Russian children born in 2013 or later have been vaccinated, which means that they are protected against pneumonia.

Importantly, Petrovax Pharm’s production capacities provide for meeting 100% of the government demand for the pneumococcal vaccine within the framework of the current National Immunization Program and quickly responding to any additional demand, in particular, on a quarterly basis. Petrovax Pharm is capable of manufacturing up to 20M pneumococcal vaccine shots annually.

According to Rosstat, infant mortality caused by pneumonia vs. the pre-vaccination period decreased by 41%. 7According to health economics studies, avoided pneumococcal infection treatment costs over 10 years after starting massive vaccination of infants under 1 year with a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in Russia will amount to 58.5B RUB8. Adults are vaccinated free of charge within the framework of regional immunization programs. Russia was one of the first countries on the world scale to deliver vaccination results in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a year after receiving a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, the number of pneumonia cases decreased 6-fold; COPD exacerbations went down 4.8-fold; hospital admissions due to exacerbations and pneumonia reduced 9-fold9.

In 2014, Prevenar®13 was awarded Prix Galien Russia as the best biotech product10.

About pneumococcal infection

According to Rosstat, in 2016, 31,201 people died in Russia from all-cause pneumonias11, which is equivalent to the population of a small town. Mean duration per occurrence is 25.6 days per 100,000 population annually. An estimated annual economic damage is about 15B RUB12.

Young children and the elderly are especially susceptible to the infection. The risk group also includes subjects with immune deficiency, diabetes, asthma, and COPD. Smoking, alcohol addiction, and adverse environmental factors increase the probability of disease development as well13.

On the other hand, an uncontrolled antibiotic use in human and veterinary medicine as well as agriculture has caused a global reach of antibiotic-resistant pneumonia agents14, therefore the facts are that pneumonia is better prevented than cured. Pursuant to the Russian National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy until 2030, immunization provides for the formation of specific immunity that decreases the demand for antibiotics15.
The WHO recommends vaccination as the best way to prevent infectious diseases, including those caused by pneumococcal infection16.

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1. World Health Organization (WHO). Media centre: The top 10 causes of death. Fact sheet N°310. Updated May 2014. http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/. Проверено 21.10.2014
2. World Health Organization (WHO). 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. WHO Position Paper. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2008;83(42):373-384.
3. World Health Organization (WHO). Immunization, vaccines and biologicals. Pneumococcal vaccines. April 2003. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2003;78(14):97-120
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal disease: clinical features. Page last updated: June 6, 2013. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/clinicians/clinical-features.html.
5. Резолюция заседания общественного Координационного совета по пневмококковой инфекции и вакцинации в России. Педиатрическая фармакология 2013/№6/с.90-100 \
6. Брико Н.И. Бремя пневмококковых инфекций и направления совершенствования эпидемического надзора в России. Эпидемиология и инфекционные болезни. Актуальные вопросы № 6/2013/c.55-59
7. Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat).
8. А.В. Рудакова, А.А. Баранов, Ю.В. Лобзин. Фармакоэкономические аспекты вакцинации детей 13-валентной пневмококковой конъюгированной вакциной в Российской Федерации. Вопросы современной педиатрии 2014/№1/с.34-41
9. Г.Л.Игнатова, О.В.Родионова. Клиническая эффективность вакцинации конъюгированной пневмококковой вакциной пациентов с хронической бронхолегочной патологией в Городском пульмонологическом центре Челябинска. Пульмонология, N6, 2013. С.38-42.
10. http://prixgalienrussia.com/otborochnyiy-komitet- premii-prix- galien-russia- 2014-nagradil- pyat-laureatov- vo-vremya- torzhestvennoy- tseremonii
11. Rosstat, Population mortality split by causes of death in the Russian Federation in 2016, gks.ru/free_doc/2016/demo/t3_3.xls
12. State sanitary and epidemiological regulations in the Russian Federation. Community-acquired pneumonia surveillance. Guidelines MU
13. World Health Organization (WHO). Immunization, vaccines and biologicals. Rotavirus and Pneumococcal vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2012
14. Russian National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy until 2030. Approved by the Russian Government on 25.09.2017. No. 2045-r
15. Russian National Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy until 2030. Approved by the Russian Government on 25.09.2017. No. 2045-r
16. World Health Organization (WHO). 10 facts on immunization. April 2012. http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/immunization/en/index.html
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